Tahara is the arabic term for purification of the body and is of utmost importance for offering namaz and also reciting Quran Paak. Ablution or tahara is basically of three kinds: ablution (wudhu), complete ablution/bathing (ghusl) and dry ablution (tayammum). As the ancient proverb goes, “Cleanliness is next to godliness”, so we need to get into a paak or clean state before we enter into communion with Allah through namaz. Tahara can help us get rid of all kinds of filth and prepare us for worshipping Allah. Muslims have been guided about the right way of doing tahara. Allah loves purity and this is mentioned in the Quran: “Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves who keep themselves pure and clean”. Surah Al-Baqarah Ayat 222.
The Qur'an insists that the believers should maintain a constant state of purity:
"O believers! When you prepare for prayer wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows, rub your heads (with water) and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are ritually impure bathe your whole body." [5: 6]
Allah ta’ala says, ‘If you are in a state of janabat (ritual impurity caused by the discharge of semen) then perform tahara and also after junub (sexual defilement)”. The Qur'an says:
O ye who believe! Do not go near namaz (salat) when you are... junub until you have washed yourselves. (4:43) O you who believe! When you stand up for prayers (salat), if you are junub then purify (yourselves). (5:6)
The first prerequisite for tahara is having clean clothes. Najasat, which can be found on either the body or clothes is of two types: najasat-e-haqueeqi (that can be seen) and najasat-e hukmi (that cannot be seen). Najasat-e haqueeqi is sub-divided into najasat-al-khafifa (light impurity) and najasat-al-ghaliza (dense impurity). The rules regarding getting rid of both the types of najasat vary. In case of najasat-e-ghaleeza, if it is greater than 1 Dihram then it is fardh to clean it thrice from the clothes or the body, with clean water. In case of najasat-e-khafifa, it is necessary to clean it if it is 1/4rth the size (or more) of the garment of the part of the body affected.
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